What is Paleontology?

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments.


What are the things paleontology includes?

Paleontology includes geological time scales, prehistoric era, animals and biodiversity

Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata to time. It is used by Geologists, Paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth’s history.

These are the time scales

Mya (million years ago)

(Time scale’s links are AD free)



Early Earth formation, first water.
4560–4000 mya

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Single-celled life traces, first oxygen. Photosynthesis.
4500-2500 mya

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Multi-celled life traces, atmospheric oxygen. Global glaciations.
2500-541 mya

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Modern complex life appearance.
541–485.4 mya

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Modern life diversification trends continue.
485.4–443.8 mya

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First terrestrial plants.
443.8–419.2 mya

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First terrestrial terapods.
419.2–358.9 mya

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Times of the large forests and insects. Pangaea formation.
358.9–298.9 mya

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Arid Earth period. Largest mass extinction in the Earth history.
298.9–252.17 mya

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First mammals and dinosaurs.
252.17–201.3 mya

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Dinosaur dominance. Division of the Pangaea.
201.3–145 mya

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Flowering plants appearance. Dinosaur extinction.
145–66 mya

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Mammal dominance. Eocene thermal maximum.
66–23.03 mya

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Modern fauna formation. First hominids.
23.03–2.58 mya

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Time of the Ice Ages. Current times.
2.58–0 mya

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Prehistoric animals

There are many animals which existed in this world before. We can’t describe them all. So we are going to see animals that existed in Triassic to Cretaceous period

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Triassic period

Jurassic period

Cretaceous period